Anthony Truskinger

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Recently at IBAC 2017 we got the chance to share our work with the bioacoustics community. Phil Eichinski represented our research group and will write a blog post soon about the experience.

Dan Stowell from Queen Mary University of London also attended and wrote about his experiences on his blog. You can read his blog post here:

Dan included our platform in his notes and had a few observations about our chosen architecture. Recognizing that we have published little on the topic, we thought this would be a good time to provide some general historical context for our chosen software architecture.

About Ecosounds

Ecosounds ( is a website that facilitates the management, access, visualization, and analysis of environmental acoustic data. This software, named the Acoustic Workbench, is open source and available from GitHub (QUT Ecoacoustics). The website is run by the QUT Ecoacoustics Research Group to support bioacoustics and ecoacoustics research.

The workbench is tailored specifically to store large amounts of passively collected long-duration environmental audio recordings. Although our group and software orginally had a bioacoustics focus, over the years we have trended away from bioacoustcis datasets towards ecoacoustics and soundscape ecology datasets.

Our chosen architecture

Principally the Acoustic Workbench is a web application. In 2011 when we rebuilt our website, we had to choose a web application framework and language that would benefit us the most. We considered PHP, Ruby (with Ruby on Rails), and Python (with Django).

We quickly ruled out PHP for several reasons. Python was a strong candidate because it was a language often used by academics. However, Ruby (and the Rails framework) won out because the Rails framework was better supported globally, did more as a framework, received constant updates, and because at the time we employed developers familiar with the platform. On reflection, choosing Python and Django would have been a better choice, if only for the appeal it would bring to other academics. Practically however, we don’t think this decision limits us:

  • Ruby on Rails has worked well for us and is an ideal framework for a web application

  • Our estimation of the benefits of switching to another platform currently can’t be justified by the associated cost

  • Our goal is to host data for scientists. We encourage open source contributions from the community but most of our users do not have the capability (or the spare time!) to contribute non-trivial code to the application (no matter the language). However, we value our users and regularly work with users to:

    • Find, triage, and fix bugs

    • To design better interfaces according to user feedback

Further, interviews with our users reveal most are interested in analysing their data and are not interested in writing management software. Thus, our ideal goal is for the Acoustic Workbench software to have the capability to run any analysis provided to us by researchers, in any language (be it R, Python, or something else entirely). This way, researchers write analysis code using their skill and their understanding of their data, and we worry about running it over large datasets.

While user submitted analysis is not ready yet, it is part of our long-term goals. We currently can run analysis using any language or platform but for simplicity, our current implementation is only secure enough to run trusted code–that is code we have written.

Our analysis

We write code to analyse our audio data. Our analyses include event recognisers custom made for various species, acoustic indices generation, and acoustic indices visualisation tools.

Currently all our production (professional) analysis is done with proprietary C# code. Our research students typically use R or MATLAB to research new techniques, which when proven useful are adapted to C#.

For anyone not familiar with C# (and for most academics) using this programming language is an odd choice. The research group was first established in 2007 under the name of the Microsoft QUT eResearch (MQUTeR) group with the help of a substantial grant from Microsoft. This allowed us access to state of the art programming tools and services we wouldn’t have been able to afford otherwise.

Over the last 10 years, we’ve slowly reduced our dependence on Microsoft products but we never could justify the cost of transitioning our analysis code. Some of our current reasoning for continuing to work with C# includes:

  • C# is an excellent language for maintainability, which is important given the age of our project

  • C# has a decent performance profile. While it is certainly not as fast as C/C++, it does by design push you into the pit of success

  • The tooling is state of the art and now free

  • Thanks to the Mono project we can run our code on most platforms, including Unix systems

  • And the entire C# stack has been rapidly become an open source development stack

As for why the code is proprietary: Our audio analysis code is proprietary mainly because it always has been. When code is private by default, the allowable content you can include is different. For example, currently there is sensitive information, incomplete experiments, and mixed intellectual property code in our code base. Currently our audio analysis code is the only significant digital artefact that we maintain that isn’t open source. This is limiting us in terms of collaboration and hinders open publishing efforts. We want to change this and we have begun investigating open sourcing our analysis code.


Lastly, more detail of our platform’s archtiecture can be found in our publication Practical Analysis of Big Acoustic Sensor Data for Environmental Monitoring (DOI: 10.1109/BDCloud.2014.29, QUT ePrints).

We hope that by publishing some of our internal history it will make our decision-making process more transparent. We’ve got several more blog posts planned that explain recent and upcoming features so stay tuned.


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